William H. Calvin
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON   98195-1800   USA
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The Drake Equation's Fi

Getting from Biology to Intelligence

Nobody knows any general way of bootstrapping intelligence; we're still working on the single example that Earth offers. And that's got speculative pieces. The best recent summary of big bang to intelligence is the series of articles in Scientific American 271(4), October 1994 (December in translation editions), reprinted in the Life in the Universe special issue, also out in book form (ISBN 0-7167-2714-5) from Freeman.


My article there is the one that covers the biology to intelligence topics:

Calvin, W. H. (1994). The emergence of intelligence.
Scientific American 271(4):100-107. Ignore the illustration at the bottom of p.106.

The book that the article spawned is my Science Masters title, HOW BRAINS THINK, Evolving Intelligence, Then and Now (BasicBooks in the US). Three earlier articles of mine on the subject are:


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