posted 1 September 2003


William H. Calvin, A Brief History of the Mind (Oxford University Press 2004), reading and notes. See also

William H. Calvin 
it's an image, you need to type it, not copy it (spam...)       
 University of Washington


Recommended Reading

There are many good books on the paleoanthropology suitable for general readers.  A few of my recent favorites are:


Donald Johanson and Blake Edgar, From Lucy to Language (Simon & Schuster 1996).  Has excellent photographs, mostly by David Brill.

Ian Tattersall, Becoming Human (Harcourt Brace 1998). 

Ian Tattersall, The Monkey in the Mirror: Essays on the Science of What Makes Us Human (Harcourt Brace 2001).

Alan Walker and Pat Shipman, The Wisdom of the Bones (Knopf 1996).


Books more specifically concerned with language and the transition to the modern mind:


William H. Calvin, Derek Bickerton, Lingua ex Machina:  Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the Human Brain (MIT Press 2000).

Terrence W. Deacon, The Symbolic Species : The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain (Norton 1997).

Merlin Donald, A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness (Norton 2001).

Robin Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Harvard University Press 1996).

Nicholas Humphrey, A History of the Mind (Simon & Schuster 1992).

Ray Jackendoff, Patterns in the Mind : Language and Human Nature (Harpercollins 1994).

Richard G. Klein and Blake Edgar, The Dawn of Human Culture (Wiley 2002).

Melvin Konner, The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit (W. H. Freeman 2001).

Steven Mithen, The Prehistory of the Mind:  The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion, and Science (Thames and Hudson 1996).

John E. Pfeiffer, The Creative Explosion (Harper and Row 1982).


To read more about the behavioral commonalities seen in the great apes, start with:


Christophe Boesch, Hedwige Boesch-Achermann, The Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution (Oxford University Press 2000).

Frans de Waal, Good Natured:  The Origins of Right and Wrong (Harvard University Press 1996).  Together with his other books for general readers, such as The Ape and the Sushi Master, Bonobo, Peacemaking Among Primates, and Chimpanzee Politics, you get a good view of what the ape-human transition might have been from.

Frans de Waal, editor, Tree of Origin:  What Primate Behavior Can Tell Us about Human Social Evolution (Harvard University Press 2001).

Michael P. Ghiglieri, East of the Mountains of the Moon: Chimpanzee Society in the African Rain Forest (Collier 1988).

Marc D. Hauser, Wild Minds (Holt 2000).

Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Mother Nature : A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection (Pantheon Books 1999).

Alison Jolly, Lucy's Legacy : Sex and Intelligence in Human Evolution (Harvard University Press 1999).

E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Stuart Shanker, Apes, Language, and the Human Mind (Oxford University Press 1998).

Craig B. Stanford, The Hunting Apes (Princeton University Press 1998).

Richard Wrangham, Dale Peterson, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (Houghton Mifflin 1996).


For evolution and cognition more generally:


William H. Calvin, A Brain for All Seasons: Human Evolution and Abrupt Climate Change (University of Chicago Press 2002).

Helena Cronin, The Ant and the Peacock (Cambridge University Press 1992).

Richard Dawkins, Climbing Mount Improbable (W. W. Norton 1996).

Daniel C. Dennett, Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (Simon & Schuster 1995).

Daniel C. Dennett, Freedom Evolves (Viking 2003).

Gilles Fauconnier, Mark Turner, The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and The Mind's Hidden Complexities (Basic Books 2002).

Mark  Johnson, Moral Imagination : Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics (University of Chicago Press 1993).

Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (Viking 2002).

Elliott Sober, David Sloan Wilson, Unto Others : The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior (Harvard University Press 1998).

Michael Tomasello, The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (Harvard University Press 2000).

Mark Turner, The Literary Mind (Oxford University Press 1996).

Edward O. Wilson, Consilience (Knopf 1998).

Adam Zeman, Consciousness (Yale University Press 2003).


For brain side of things, start with Deacon (1997) and my earlier books, The Cerebral Code, How Brains Think, and Conversations with Neil’s Brain (with George Ojemann). 
Mine are all at


The glossary in A Brain for All Seasons will be helpful (see  For language issues, see the glossary for Lingua ex Machina (at



Chapter Notes


When you see a short reference such as Calvin (2002), it means that the long form is nearby or back in the Recommended Readings.





13       R. G. Collingwood, An Autobiography (Oxford University Press 1939),  98.

            Z. L. Henderson, “The context of some Middle Stone Age hearths at Klasies River Shelter 1B: implications for understanding human behaviour,”  Southern African Field Archaeology 1:14-26 (1992).

            There are alternative ways to define Homo sapiens sapiens, mostly associated with older notions of whether H. sapiens should include Neanderthals, about which I remain agnostic.  I am simply using Homo sapiens for “anatomically modern” (not counting the chin) from 160,000 years ago in Africa and Homo sapiens sapiens for “behaviorally modern” that phases in between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago in Africa.

13       David Fromkin, The Way of the World (Knopf 1998). 

14       Stephen W. Hawking, A Brief History of Time (Bantam 1989).

17       Daniel C. Dennett, Freedom Evolves (Viking 2003),  6.


         1.  When Chimpanzees Think  


23      The major references are in the list at page  210.

            Anne E. Russon, Kim A. Bard, and Sue Taylor Parker, eds., Reaching into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes (Cambridge University Press 1996).

22      Frans de Waal, Frans Lanting, Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape (University of California Press 1997),  160.

26      Richard W. Byrne and Andrew Whiten, Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes and Humans (Oxford University Press 1988).

            Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics, revised edition (Johns Hopkins University Press 1998).

28      Monkeys competing with chimpanzees:  Ghiglieri (1988).

28      Sonia Ragir, “Diet and food preparation:  Rethinking early hominid behavior,” Evolutionary Anthropology 9:153-155 (2000).

            Sonia Ragir, Martin Rosenberg, Philip Tierno, “Gut morphology and the avoidance of carrion among chimpanzees, baboons, and early hominids,” Journal of Anthropological Research 56:477-512 (2000) at

            Mark F. Teaford and Peter S. Ungar, “Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 97: 13506-13511 (5 December 2000).

            Leslie C. Aiello, Peter Wheeler, “The expensive tissue hypothesis:  The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution,” Current Anthropology 36:199-221 (1995).

30      Stanford (1998).

            Richard W. Wrangham, “Out of the Pan, into the fire:  How our ancestors’ evolution depended on what they ate,” in Tree of Origin, edited by Frans B. M. de Waal (Harvard University Press 2001),  121-143.

            Craig B. Stanford, “The ape’s gift:  Meat-eating, meat-sharing, and human evolution,” in Tree of Origin, edited by Frans B. M. de Waal (Harvard University Press 2001),  97-117.

            Christophe Boesch, Michael Tomasello, “Chimpanzee and human cultures,” Current Anthropology 39:591-614 (December 1998).

32      Konner (2001),  40.

32      Peter D. Walsh et al., “Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa,” Nature (6 April 2003).


         2.  Upright Posture but Ape-sized Brains


35      The major references are in the list at page  209.  For the esthetic preferences, see Gordon H. Orians, “Human behavioral ecology:  140 years without Darwin is too long,” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 79(1):15-28 (1998).

36      Michel Brunet et al., “A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa,” Nature 418:145-151 (2002).

37      Peter E. Wheeler, “The foraging times of bipedal and quadrupedal hominids in open equatorial environments,” Journal of Human Evolution 27:511-517  (1994).

41       Hauser (2000),  xviii. 


         3.  Triple Startups about 2.5 Million Years Ago

43      The climate issues are covered in Calvin (2002).  The beginning of the ice age at 2.5 million years is dated by N. J. Shackleton et al., “Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region,” Nature 307:620-623 (1984).

48      The D2 dopamine allele story is Kenneth Blum, John G. Cull, Eric R. Braverman and David E. Comings, “Reward deficiency syndrome,” American Scientist 84(2): 132ff (March-April 1996) at

 51       Beatrice Bruteau, letter to author, February 2003.


         4.  Upright into the Grasslands 


56      Barbara Isaac (ed.), The Archaeology of Human Origins: Papers by Glynn Isaac (Cambridge University Press 1989), 289-311.

            Richard W. Wrangham, James Holland Jones, Greg Laden, David Pilbeam, and NancyLou Conklin-Brittain, “The raw and the stolen: Cooking and the ecology of human origins,” Current Anthropology 40(5):567-594 (December 1999).

59      Fromkin (1998),  100.

60      Carl Swisher, et al., “Latest Homo erectus of Java:  Potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in southeast Asia,” Science 274: 1870-1874 (1996).

            Leo Gabunia, et al., “Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia:  Taxonomy, geological setting, and age,” Science 288:1019-1025 (12 May 2000).  

60      Doreen Kimura, “Left-hemisphere control of oral and brachial movements and their relation to communication,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B B292:135-149 (1982).

60      Cooking:  Wrangham et al. (1999).

            The handaxe drawings by C. O. Waterhouse are adapted from Kenneth P. Oakley, Man the Tool-maker (University of Chicago Press 1949).

60      For the story of the Japanese monkeys, see chapter 3 in my essay book, The Throwing Madonna (McGraw-Hill 1983).

61       Handaxe references:  Calvin (2002),  133-146.

            Hunting per se:  Matt Cartmill, A View to a Death in the Morning (Harvard University Press 1993). 

            Hadza hunting:  James C. Woodburn, “An introduction to Hadza ecology,” in Man the Hunter, edited by Richard B. Lee and Irven DeVore (Aldine 1968) ,  19-55.

            Much of hunting in carnivores is determined by some simple innate behaviors, such as “encircle the prey” (dogs that herd animals are following this same innate tendency). The big cats clearly do not understand certain principles such as “stay downwind” and may spook their prey in a way that human hunters can avoid.  See Stanley Coren, The Intelligence of Dogs: Canine Consciousness and Capabilities (Free Press 1994),  114-115.


         5.  The Second Brain Boom

 64      The data in the figure is adapted from figure 8.3 of Richard G. Klein, The Human Career:  Human Biological and Cultural Origins, second edition (University of Chicago Press 1999), which is based on the 1993 data collection of Aiello and Dunbar.

67      Abrupt climate changes, see Calvin (2002) and Richard B. Alley, The Two-Mile Time Machine:  Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future (Princeton University Press 2000).

67      Law of Large Numbers:  The problem with precision timing is the timing jitter.  But, just as you can take four times as many independent sample to halve the standard deviation, so the brain can use ensemble averaging to reduce timing jitter.  To reduce jitter eight-fold, you need about 64 times as many timers to average across.  See William H. Calvin, The Cerebral Code (MIT Press 1996).

68      Derek Bickerton, Language and Species (University of Chicago Press 1990).

69      Tim D. White et al., “Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature 423:742 - 747 (12 June 2003).

            J. Desmond Clark, “Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature 423:747-752 (12 June 2003).

70      Dunbar (1996)

71       Hauser (2000),  175.

            Gunther Kress,  Theo van Leeuwen, Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design (Routledge 1996),  168.


         6.  Neanderthals and Our Pre-sapiens Ancestors


72      Pinker (2002).

73      A readable introduction to hominid tool use is Stanley H. Ambrose, “Paleolithic technology and human evolution,” Science 291(5509)1748-1753 (2 March 2001).

73      H. Thieme, “Lower Paleolithic  hunting spears from Germany,” Nature 385:807-810 (1997).

74      Klein and Edgar (2002).

76      W. Tecumseh Fitch, “The evolution of speech: a comparative review,” Trends in Cognitive Science 4:258-267 (July 2000).

            Philip Lieberman, Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought, and Selfless Behavior (Harvard University Press 1991).  And see his Eve Spoke (Norton 1998).

79      Pinker (2002),  318.

            Ian Tattersall, The monkey in the mirror: essays on the science of what makes human (Harcourt 2002),  168.


         7.  Homo sapiens without the Modern Mind 


81       Max Ingman, Henrik Kaessmann, Svante Pääbo, Ulf Gyllensten, “Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans,” Nature 408:708-713 (7 December 2000).

 82      Michael Balter, “New light on the oldest art,”  Science news article, 283(5404): 920-922 (12 February 1999).   The radiocarbon date for Chauvet is 31,000 years; the calibrated dates range from 33,000 to 38,000 years.  See Edouard Bard, “Extending the calibrated radiocarbon record,” Science 292:2443-2444 (29 June 2001).

82      Looking modern:  Daniel E. Lieberman, Brandeis M. McBratney, Gail Krovitz, “The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 99(3)1134-1139 (5 February 2002).

84      William H. Calvin, “The unitary hypothesis:  A common neural circuitry for novel manipulations, language, plan-ahead, and throwing?”  in Tools, Language, and Cognition in Human Evolution, edited by Kathleen R. Gibson and Tim Ingold (Cambridge University Press 1993) 230-250, at

83      Rachel Caspari and S.-H. Lee, “Is old age really old? An analysis of longevity in the hominid fossil record,” Paleoanthropology Society Abstracts (2003), at

84      Leo Gabunia, et al., “Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia:  Taxonomy, geological setting, and age,” Science 288:1019-1025 (12 May 2000).

85      Blades and their African origin:  Sally McBrearty and Alison S. Brooks, “The revolution that wasn't:  A new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior,”  Journal of Human Evolution 39 (5):453-563 (November 2000).

87      Paul G. Bahn, J. Vertut, Journey through the ice age, (University of California Press, Berkeley 1997). 

            There are controversial hints of art even earlier than Homo sapiens:  Alexander Marshack, “The Berekhat Ram figurine: a late Acheulian carving from the Middle East,” Antiquity 71:327-338 (1997).

            Ofer Bar-Yosef , “The upper paleolithic revolution,” Annual Reviews of Anthropology 31:363-393 (2002).

            Robert N. Proctor, “Three roots of human recency,” Current Anthropology 44(2):213-239 (April 2003).

            For a discussion of the art of hunter-gatherers in the context of material culture, see Margaret W. Conkey, “Hunting for images, gathering up meanings: art for life in hunting-gathering societies,”  267-291 in Hunter-Gatherers: An interdisciplinary perspective, ed. C. Panter-Brick et al (Cambridge University Press 2001).

            Quote:  Klein and Edgar (2002),  230.

            Nicholas Humphrey’s book, The Inner Eye (Faber and Faber 1986), is a good exposition on the role of social life in shaping up intelligence.

91       Michael Tomasello, The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (Harvard, 2000),  32.

            Cecilia M. Heyes, "Theory of mind in nonhuman primates," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:101-148 (1998).

92      V. S. Ramachandran, “Mirror neurons and imitation learning as the driving force behind ‘the great leap forward’ in human evolution,” at

94      Roger Shepard, Mind Sights (Freeman 1990).

            Ernst Gombrich, Art and Illusion (Princeton University Press 1969).

95      Frontal lobe functioning:  I have simplified, to use an ordinary deck of cards, what neuropsychologists will immediately recognize as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.

96      National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director, "Early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children," NIH Consensus Statement 11 (1 March 1993). Their recommendation is that all hearing-impaired infants be identified, and treatment initiated, before six months of age.

97      Oliver Sacks, Seeing Voices (University of California Press 1989),  40-44.

98      See the excellent biography by Peter Raby, Alfred Russel Wallace, A Life (Princeton University Press 2001).

99      Daniel C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Little Brown 1991),  21.

99      Dennett (2003), 2


         8.  Structured Thought Finally Appears


101     Daniel C. Dennett, Kinds of Minds (Basic Books Science Masters 1996) ,  147.

101     Richard E. Leakey, Roger Lewin, Origins Reconsidered (Doubleday 1992),  212.

102    Terrence Deacon, The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain (Norton 1997).

103    E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Roger Lewin, Kanzi : The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind (Wiley 1994).

            Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Stuart G. Shanker, and Talbot J. Taylor, Apes, Language, and the Human Mind. (Oxford University Press 1998).

104    Marc D. Hauser, Noam Chomsky, W. Tecumseh Fitch,The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?”  Science 298(5598):1569-1579 (22 November 2002).

            Sentence structure:  William H. Calvin, Derek Bickerton, Lingua ex Machina:  Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the Human Brain (MIT Press, 2000).                                     

110     Turner (1996).

110     Harmony:  Steven R. Holtzman, Digital Mantras: The Languages of Abstract and Virtual Worlds (MIT Press 1994).

            Karl Popper, Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography (London: Fontana 1976).

113     William H. Calvin, “A stone's throw and its launch window: Timing precision and its implications for language and hominid brains,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 104:121-135 (1983) at

114     “Enlarge one neocortical  area, enlarge them all” paraphrased from:  Barbara L. Finlay and R. B. Darlington, “Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains,” Science 268:1578-1584 (1995).

115     William H. Calvin, George A. Ojemann, Conversations with Neil’s Brain (Addison-Wesley 1994.

72      Tomasello (2000),  5.                                                                   


         9.  From Africa to Everywhere


122    John E. Pfeiffer, The Creative Explosion (Harper and Row 1982),  207-208.

124    Creation myths:  Melville J. Herskovits, Man and his Works (Knopf 1952),  68-69.

            Timing for out of Africa:  “These results indicate that male movement out of Africa first occurred around 47,000 years ago.  The age of mutation 2, at around 40,000 years ago, represents an estimate of the time of the beginning of global expansion,”  Russell Thomson et al., “Recent common ancestry of human Y chromosomes: Evidence from DNA sequence data,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  97(13):7360-7365 (20 June 2000).

127    Fishing implements:  Alison S. Brooks, et al., “Dating and context of three Middle Stone Age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire,” Science, 268: 548-553 (1995).

127    Beads:  Stanley H. Ambrose, “Chronology of the Later Stone Age and Food Production in East Africa ,” Journal of Archaeological Research 25(4):377-392 (1 April 1998). 

            Cross-hatching on red ochre:  Christopher S. Henshilwood  et al., “Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa,” Science 295: 1278-1280 (2002).

            Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, “The Pleistocene and the origins of human culture: Built for speed,” In Perspectives in Ethology, Volume 13. Nicholas S. Thompson and Francois Tonneau, eds. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 2000),  1-45.

128    Spencer Wells et al., “The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 98: 10244-10249 (2001).  And see Spencer Wells, The Journey of Man (Princeton University Press 2003).

            Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Review 68 (Fall 1990).

133    Elizabeth F. Loftus, "Creating false memories," Scientific American 277(3):70-75 (September 1997) and her Eyewitness Testimony (Harvard University Press, revised edition 1996).

136    Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, Notes From Underground [Letters from the Underworld] (1864).  See

138        Martyrdom is often the result of excessive gullibility.”  I have lifted this felicitous phrase from page 164 of The Mummy Case, a 1985 novel by the egyptologist Elizabeth Peters.

138    Robert Wright in Slate 9/2002.

139    Desmond Morris, The Human Animal: A Personal View of the Human Species (BBC Publications 1994).

            Carl Sagan, The Demon-haunted World (Random House 1996),  26.


         10. How Creativity Manages the Mixups

142    Joan Didion, Michigan Quarterly Review 18(4):521-534 (Autumn 1979).

143    Tattersall (1998),  28.

144    Language onset:  Kenneth P. Oakley, Man the Tool-maker (University of Chicago Press 1949).

146    Marc D. Hauser, Wild Minds (Holt 2000),  62.

147    My six essentials (from The Cerebral Code 1996) build on the three that Alfred Russel Wallace listed in 1875 (“. . . the known laws of variation, multiplication, and heredity . . . have probably sufficed. . . .”); I make explicit the pattern, the work space competition, and the environmental biases.  See Wallace’s “The limits of natural selection as applied to man,” chapter 10 of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection (Macmillan 1875).

150    Mithen (1996).

151     Calvin (1996) discusses the cortical recruitment of a plainchant choir.

151     The technical term for this is coherence, as in a coherent light pipe, but here I have avoided my terminology from The Cerebral Code because I am using coherence in another sense, of where everything hangs together in the output of the Darwin Machine.

153    Konner (2001),  xviii


         11. Civilizing Ourselves

154    Steven Harnad, “Back to the Oral Tradition Through Skywriting at the Speed of Thought”  (2003) at

            Galileo, Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems (1632, as reprinted University of California Press, Berkeley 1967).

            Pinker (2002), 222.

156    Alexia without agraphia:  William H. Calvin, George A. Ojemann, Conversations with Neil’s Brain (Addison-Wesley 1994), 232-233.

158    George A. Ojemann, "Some brain mechanisms for reading," in Brain and Reading, edited by Curt von Euler (Macmillan 1989),  47-59.

160    Pinker (2002),  221.

162    Richard D. Alexander, Darwinism and Human Affairs (University of Washington Press 1979).

165    Konner (2001),  3.

165    David Brin, Salon (17 December 2002), at

            David Brin, Tomorrow Happens (NESFA Press, 2003).


         12. What’s Sudden About the Mind’s Big Bang? 

166    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry, The origins of life:  From the birth of life to the origin of language (Oxford University Press 1999),  16-19.

168    Gossip, social life, and brain size:  Dunbar (1996).


         13. Imagining the House of Cards

176    Pinker (2002), 70.

177    Proximate and ultimate causation, see Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought (Harvard University Press 1982).

            Levels of organization:  Heinz R. Pagels, The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity (Simon & Schuster 1988).

180    Daniel Chandler, Semiotics for Beginners at

181     Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge (1667).

182    Dennett (2003),  266.

184    Turner (1996),  67.

            Turner (1996),  114.


         14. The Future of the Augmented Mind


186    Joel Garreau (2003), at 

            Tattersall (2002),  194.

191     William H. Calvin, The River That Flows Uphill (Macmillan 1986),  453-454.

192    Assortative mating is a common biological phenomenon.  But whether there is actual IQ shift or not also depends on how many children those high-high couples have, compared to otherwise.

193    Ernst Mayr, The growth of biological thought (Harvard University Press 1982),  47.

193    Erich Jantsch, Self Organizing Universe: Scientific and Human Implications (Pergamon Press 1980).

201    Adam Zeman, Consciousness: A User’s Guide (Yale University Press 2003),  181.                               William H. Calvin, “Competing for consciousness: A Darwinian mechanism at an appropriate level of explanation,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 5(4)389-404 (1998).

194    Elizabeth Peters, He shall thunder in the sky (Morrow 2000), 200.

195    Russell Gardner, Jr., “Evolutionary perspectives on stress and affective disorder,” Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry 6(1):32-42 (2001).

            Randolph M. Neese, “Is depression an adaptation?” Archives of General Psychiatry 57:14-20 (2000).

203   Connie A. Woodhouse, Jonathan T. Overpeck, “2000 years of drought variability in the central United States,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79(12)2693–2714 (1998).

203   Barbara Kingsolver, Small Wonder (HarperCollins 2002), 101.  And see Jared Diamond’s Ecocide (Allen Lane 2004).

206   Stewart Brand's statement of purpose for the Whole Earth Catalog (that won the National Book Award in 1972) was, as usual, more succinct: “We are as gods and might as well get good at it.”


William H. Calvin is a neurobiologist, Affiliate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle.  His Ph.D. (University of Washington 1966) was in physiology and biophysics.  His major research interest is in the Darwinian brain circuitry for higher intellectual functions, with secondary interests in paleoanthropology and climate.   



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A Brief History of the Mind, 2004
A Brief History of the Mind

A Brain for All Seasons, 2002
A Brain for All Seasons

Lingua ex Machina:  Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the Human Brain (Calvin & Bickerton, 2000)
Lingua ex Machina

The Cerebral Code:  Thinking a Thought in the Mosaics of the Mind (1996)
The Cerebral Code

How Brains Think:  Evolving Intelligence, Then and Now (1996)
How Brains Think

Conversations with Neil's Brain:  The Neural Nature of Thought and Language (Calvin & Ojemann, 1994)
Conversations with
Neil's Brain

The River That Flows Uphill
The River That
Flows Uphill


The Throwing Madonna:  Essays on the Brain
The Throwing Madonna

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